What Can replace 5000 Million tons of fossil Oil per year?
What Can replace 9000 Million tons of fossil Coal per year?
What Can replace 4000 Billion cubic meters of fossil Gases?
What Can replace them all by Clean,Cheap,RenewableEnergy?
Trash Can. Or Fossil Waste.
Combustion Waste is a Resource
To Us, it's a Precious Resource
A Clean and Resilient Resource
Recycled, an Eternal Resource
Our World can Run on Waste.
Power Plant Waste
Your Car Waste
Everybody's Waste Don't Waste Your Energy.
Regardless of compound,
Carbon (like in dioxide) is Energy
Energy is not destructible,
Energy is just transformable
Make Use of Your Energy,
Retransform Your Energy
Don't Waste Your Energy, Recycle Your Waste Gases
Make fossil Waste Transduce into Clean Fuels
Make fossil Waste a Renewable Energy
Turn fossil Waste into a Present from the Past
Turn fossil Waste into Friends for Ever to Last
Save the Ocean and Lake Life from Dying. Make the World Secure against Drowning.
As Walking in Circles means Progress
Age of Reason long Past and far Gone
As those ones we Trusted all Fail
The Most Provident Camp Will Prevail
@ <3 we believe 2 accomplish this:
1. Absorb atmospheric, aquatic & smokestack CO2 ("Carbon Capture") 2 ... - Reuse the Carbon portion (CCR) YES! - Store/Sequester the CO2 (CCS) NO!! - lower temperatures and thereby ocean levels - stabilize, then reverse ocean & lake acidification* - provide clean, cheap, abundant, sustainable energy
2. Absorb atmospheric CH4, Methane 2 ... - reuse directly as (L)NG, natural gas - convert into other hydrocarbons
3. Retract plastic waste from the oceans 2 ... - repair nutrition chains & habitats (*combined with CCR effort) - save biologic variety & populations
4. Desalinize seawater (solar powered) 2 ... - provide drinking water in abundance - irrigate arable soils (residue free like rain) - halt & reverse desert propagation
5. Particle filters on smokestacks, burners, trucks, vessels etc 2 ... - clean out smutty glacier & polar ice surfaces - (surface sunlight absorption speeds up melt-off) - detoxify mountain glacier (river) drinking & irrigation water - prevent landslides and thereby provide revegetation
Our operational objectives:
sustainable energy - climate - economy solutions
We could never permanently remove atmospheric and aquatic CO2 & other greenhouse gases -- We shouldbalance their levels & reuse them, by recycling their intrinsic energy over and over again!
" And those who were seen dancing were thought to be insane by those who could not hear the music " - Friedrich Nietzsche
Arphosis.com is developing a unique software-based scientific tool for the development of molecules functioning as catalysts in applied artificial photosynthesis, which can be tailored to produce various hydrocarbon* fuels, out of high volume flows of atmospheric & aquatic greenhouse gases** at normal pressures and temperatures, as well as out of fumes or carbon-separated*** greenhouse gases from power plants & industry (CCR model).
* Ethane and methane (natural gas), DME, butane, propane and heavier gases, methanol, ethanol and other alcohols, trimetypentan, hexadecane and various blends of gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, lubricating oil, etc., and other products such as ethylene & plastics, waxes, medicines, synthetic rubber, etc.
** CO2, CO, CH4 (methane), N2O ("laughing-gas"), H2O (water vapor), O3 (ozone), etc
*** excepting subsequent deposition as in the CCS model
The software tool uses templates and science data to calculate the costs and outflows due to the inflow volume, the composition of the inflow gases, their pressure and temperature, and the selection of active catalyst.
The software also calibrates connecting infrastructure (existing pipelines, ports, refineries, repositories, railways, highways and the expansion needs of those) and assesses geographically suitable locations based on available natural resources (sunshine, sea/lake water, possibly wind) and demographic, political, security and terrain-contingent considerations.
We Know how to Rewind Climate Change by Producing Resource Resilient Fuels thru Recycling Energy out of Greenhouse Gases applying Artificial PhotoSynthesis Initiative Software
Join this rescue endeavor into our Place in Space that we call Home.
your cat 1 advert here!
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Welcome to - the site for You who want to cultivate Your environmental commitment by joining in building up the only ecologically and economically truly sustainable energy system for the future. Member join, advertise, sponsor, partner, buy equities - team up
The environment in general and global warming in particular is a burning question of survival for Us all
Time has in fact already run out. But there is a remedy! It is now not only necessary to rewind the tape - We are actually able to rewind it!
The technology already exists but is unexploited today - for none but Us seem yet to realize that the market is the only thing we can rely on
We who run this site and You who want to be part of it, We share the insight and knowledge, We have commitment and faith in the future!
Together We are now building up a functional interaction between Us Humans and Our Earth
Our idea is to arouse opinion, and hence a demand that induces a market for recycling (regeneration) of energy out of greenhouse gases.
To create a never ending cycle from hydrocarbon-based fuels to greenhouse gases back to fuels, over and over again.
To help businesses make money and simultaneously allow the regulation of atmospheric & aquatic greenhouse gases in order to prevent total disaster.
Toofferresearchers & marketpartiesconceptualblueprintswithtoolsformulti-physicssimulation & chemical-biologicalenergyresearch.
This is Our vision, this is Our mission!
Arphosis is a trampoline for arousing opinion & evoking demand, as a result thereof markets for truly resource resilient, socially & climatically responsible energy-ecology-economy solutions, by influencing decision makers in key businesses and inspiring new entrepreneurs world-wide
Here We'll report facts for spontaneously arousing public opinion, hence inducing demand for recycled energy in order to kick-start markets.
Only through facts can We evoke insight and then bring about a change.
Team up & get full access to Our world of information & know-how!
Absorb articles,documents,links,pics,graphs,videos & FAQs,and You'll see what has to be done,what can be done,how & by whom
NEW FUNCS & NEWSREEL
2017-08-06 » New section: Solutions & Product Concepts section.
Feel enticed to get back to us with proposals, feedback and questions on this new section . Remember - Fantasy is tightly connected to Reality. Big Dreams always come true!
2016-11-27 » Arphosis new blog: Arphosis Wordpress Blog.
Feel super welcome to post any comment, feedback or question in this new blog - our hope is that we shall build on this together. Say what You think - out loud!
2016-02-01 » Breaking news: Turning air into fuel: USC scientists convert carbon dioxide into methanol - super-efficiently and at lower temperatures. https://news.usc.edu/91297/turning-air-into-fuel-usc-scientists-turn-carbon-dioxide-into-methanol/
Today a report was issued from USC - University of Southern California - evidencing that atmospheric carbondioxide succesfully had been captured and recycled into methanol at temperatures between just 125 - 145 centigrades (Celsius scale). However slightly unfavorable their estimated full-scale facility production cost turned out in comparison with the currently minimal oil product prices, there is a clear trend pointing in the direction of more and more laboratories and scientists determinably and successfully endeavoring into the hunt for GHG (greenhouse gas) conversion into clean fuels. This implies that the time when new markets for those new products will emerge may be here sooner than expected.
Our vision and our business aim is steadfast: we mean to help procure the world's energy producers with an arsenal of techniques to produce clean, cheap fuels at low costs, simultaneously turning what is slowly killing us all into profitable merchandise, instead miraculously beneficial to us all.
Our CatELab-APS/e3 software will enable the elaboration of catalysts suitable for various conditions and applications: diluted atmospheric and seawater-dissolved GHGs at various temperatures and at normal atmospheric - aquatic pressures; aquatic GHGs dissolved in sea water; concentrated car exhaust outlet GHGs at high temperatures and elevated gas pressure (compare with today's nitrogen transforming catalytic converters, mandatory underneath every modern car); concentrated industry and power plant smokestack GHGs at reduced temperatures and moderate pressure; any today not anticipated application dealing with any range of concentration, temperature and pressure. Also, of course adapted to the type of fuel the energy producer desires to output at any given facility or mobile catalytic converter setup. This implies that we have designed our software to work with any given combined level of those four production conditions, be they high or low, dense or diluted, hot or cold, respectively. At the very finish line we wish to - and we see no reason not to - be able to offer a software that can be managed in a simple way by non-scientist personnel, simply operated through intuitive web browser interface parameter calibrations of the anticipated transformation process input conditions as well as the desired outputs by turn.
2015-10-09 » New utility: FleXray Anylyzer! - Flexible X-ray Analyzer - an omnifarious & omnipotent utility software for analyzing anything, any way.
This utlility is integrated into the Important Facts & Docs section. Its functionality can be applied to any data of any type, coming from any source. This utility is developed by us as a stand-alone software package easily integrable onto any set of information source - documents, calculation sheets, videos, audios, photos, graphics, animations, databases, webplaces, maps ... whatever -- No "Big-Data"... c) : Works with any document format ... any video format ... any image format ... any raw data streaming in from anywhere, auto-structured by the reader function into crystal clear data and analyzed meeting your every need of clarity. So check it out and experience a new world of perceiving and dealing with... anything really... right at your fingertips, coming alive at your excited feet! This will turn you into a big-time juggler in total control - intuitively and with no effort. (the analyze functionality portion of this utility is available to FleXray subscribers and to CatELab licensees. Contact us for a demo and for additional information.) Stay tuned 4 addons!
2015-06-11 » New section: Important Facts & Docs section. Note: The transform image propoperties template (shown on mouse-over resize image icon for an opened image) currently does not work well with Mozilla Firefox browser. Stay tuned for coming support input! Feel encouraged to get back to us with feedback on this new section - that's how we can best improve concept and quality as we roll out new addon functionality. Think big & Never miss a thing!
2015-03-05 » New section: FAQs & answers! Will continually be extended so peek in regularly. Also feel very welcome to mail us questions, answers to FAQ'd questions, ideas, viewpoints, feedback, suggestions, proposals, complaints, and of course :) credits. We intend shortly to hang up a bulletin board in order to post notices not categorized as news nor graffiti, but with the same content as described above but back to you members & viewers -- answers to your questions etc, feedback on your ideas etc. Some questions of yours may also end up as new FAQ items. Be back soon!
2015-02-28 » New section: Graffiti Board! Boasting thoughts, ideas, postures, whatever! that You members or Ourselves want to "debrief" or delve into. N.b: all entries are anonymous and will be scrutinized before accepted. Commonplace ethics apply (racism, foul language, etc). Postings accepted will be aired within 24 hrs. Sorting by day or by category and day (decided shortly). There is a simple entry pane at bottom of the Board for you to enter your texts, maximum of 1000 characters. For non-anon postings, discussion threads, answers, etc, please utilize our Blog function. You may of course refer to Board entries in a Blog posting, but not conversely. Complaints category entries on the Board will be conveyed to a Complaints-anon ticket in the Blog. Get your spray cans out!!
2015-02-26 » New section: New Funcs & Newsreel!
more items coming up soon ...
GRAFITTI BOARD - HEART & MIND
Not exactly -- we at Arphosis don't really hang in casinos, 'cause to us those are mere temples of ignorance and unawareness, exploiting people's lust and irresponsibility :) "Do I feel lucky?" and "I f-k the future" are iconic lines of two epic movies, working well in their contexts, but neither in a casino (close that net plague down!) nor in the real world could those materialize the offspring of any responsible or logical thinking.
Recycling atmospheric and aquatic waste gases is heretical to present-day mobs going "All Hydrocarbon is a no-no because it is consanguine or to us anyways congenial with its fossil fuel equivalents".
We say: "Yes! That kinship is exactly what justifies and necessitates its implementation !!!!!" -- how else would you deal with all that atmospheric & aquatic waste?
Dig it down in the ground? Capture it with a mouse trap'n'cheeze??
Think again and, if still no blue indicator lights up your face, again...
The bloody age of inquisition is back, the clergy now being social retards and all-mouth politicians, unaware "journalists", and pathetic, ignorant indolents. Feeling lucky, that eeeeverything will turn out for the best (expressed thru politicians and other mindless mobs), or f-king the future (explicitly thru sociopaths and implicitly thru denialists) are spineless postures found inside far too many minds in our day.
Interviewees are split about anything you might want to ask, on answering yes-and-no type of questions.
The "No" side can thus always point to the fact that "the people" stand disunited before any environmental issue whatsoever.
Ignore those inquiries, moreover often ordered by the "No" side representatives (and results may even be fake).
Stop digesting (dis)information - Just Think for Yourself!
Go from dissociated to associated, take a proactive approach to those issues and to solving them.
Join community initiatives gradually gaining mass and momentum inducing demand for SEREPs (Socially & Environmentally Responsible Energy Productions).
The only way that new markets for regenerated energy out of recycled waste gases can emerge !!
Showcase big scale prototypes of CatELab-APS/e3 plants evidencing their promised positive environmental and economical effects.
“Here’s to the crazy ones. The misfits. The rebels. The troublemakers. The round pegs in the square holes.
The ones who see things differently. They’re not fond of rules. And they have no respect for the status quo.
You can quote them, disagree with them, glorify or vilify them. About the only thing you can’t do is ignore them.
Because they change things. They invent. They imagine. They heal. They explore. They create. They inspire.
They push the human race forward.
Maybe they have to be crazy.
How else can you stare at an empty canvas and see a work of art? Or sit in silence and hear a song that’s never been written? Or gaze at a red planet and see a laboratory on wheels?
We make tools for these kinds of people.
While some see them as the crazy ones, we see genius. Because the people who are crazy enough to think they can change the world, are the ones who do.”
- Steve Jobs' foreword to a book of the Apple “Think Different” campaign in 1997-98
“Come writers and critics
Who prophesize with your pen
And keep your eyes wide
The chance won't come again
And don't speak too soon
For the wheel's still in spin
And there's no tellin' who
That it's namin'.
For the loser now
Will be later to win
For the times they are a-changin'.”
- Bob Dylan/ The times they are a-changing
“The most difficult thing is the decision to act, the rest is merely tenacity.” – Amelia Earhart
“Experience teaches only the teachable” - Aldous Huxley
“Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life.” – Steve Jobs
“People with passion CAN change the world” - Steve Jobs
An SBD device is a “Supreme Bullshit Detector”
“I grew up thinking that it was normal to see things before they happen. Grown up, I learned that we call it scenarios.”
DREAM. DESIGN. DEVELOP. DELIVER.
“What was cannot be again, and what should have been will never come”
“These who criticize you directly for your faults are your friends, not those who appear nice even when you’re wrong”
10% of what we read
20% of what we hear
30% of what we see
50% of what we see and hear
70% of what we discuss with others
80% of what we personally experience
95% of what we teach others”
- Edgar Dale
“Everything is doomed to destruction” - Herodotos
“In our time, ambition is darkened by greed and indolence” - Kenneth Clark
“We can't learn anything from history except that everything leads to unintentional consequences” - Tom Holland
“During times of universal deceit, telling the truth becomes a revolutionary act” - George Orwell
“If you're confused about what to do, it's a sign that your enemy is winning” ― Toba Beta
“Do I not destroy my enemies when I make them my friends?” ― Abraham Lincoln
“Not all who wander are lost” - J. R. R. Tolkien
“It is amazing what you can accomplish if you don't care who gets the credit” - Harry S Truman
“Logic will take you from A to B. Imagination takes you everywhere” - Albert Einstein
“We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them” - Albert Einstein
“Imagination is more important than knowledge” - Albert Einstein.
“Every person that you meet knows something you don't; learn from them” - H. Jackson Brown Jr.
“If opportunity doesn't knock, build a door then” - Milton Berle
“I cannot do all the good that the world needs, but the world needs all the good that I can do” - Jana Stansfield
“It is impossible to live without failing at something, unless you live so cautiously that you might as well not have lived at all, in which case you have failed by default” – J.K. Rowling
“There are no eternal facts, as there are no absolute truths” - Friedrich Nietzsche
“if you wish to strive for peace of soul and pleasure, then believe; if you wish to be a devotee of truth, then inquire” - Friedrich Nietzsche
“I am always doing that which I can not do - in order to learn how to do it” - Pablo Picasso
“Every time I thought I was being rejected from something good, I was actually being re-directed to something better” - Steve Maraboli
Trying to mitigate climate change effects by adapting to them is like trying to cure obesity by loosening your belt. (“Trying to cure traffic congestion by adding capacity is like...” - Glen Hiemstra)
If everything seems under control you are not going fast enough
Explore your imagination, the possibilities are infinite
Disruption can be predicted but few have the guts to act
Regardless of size and success, no one is safe
Success is more attitude than aptitude
End user appeal beats everything
Doers get what they want. Everyone else get what they get
The price of anything is the amount of life you exchange for it
A dream we dream alone is a only a dream, a dream we dream together is reality
The best way to predict the future is to create it
Let History Begin
Not because it's easy, but because it's necessary (“...but because it's hard”, Jonh F Kennedy said on planning moon voyages in 1962)
In the 20th Century, we had ideologies. In the 21st Century, we have DATA. Most of the problems we face today are simply a hangover from the 20th Century where ideologies dominated. Now we have empirics. We must push past the noise of those who still shout about why their ideology is better than someone else's. We must use data to collaborate, create and innovate
Directions for the next road comes from all the ones prior traveled
The distance between your dreams and reality is called ACTION!
SOUNDING BOARD - FEEDBACKS
This section will be featuring you members' and our own questions, answers to those, ideas, viewpoints, feedback, suggestions, proposals, complaints, and of course :) credits - non categorized as news nor graffiti, but bouncing back to you members & viewers -- members' & viewers'answers and ours to your questions etc, feedback on your ideas etc. Some questions of yours may also qualify as new FAQ items and end up in that section, some entries may categorize as graffiti and be conveyed to that section. coming soon!
FAQs & ANSWERS
FAQs - Dealing with common issues & misconceptions
Is not enough to reduce emissions, increase energy efficiency, or capture pollutants at the emission source (and attempt to sequester or store it, as with CCS)?
No, that can only reduce future emissions by a fraction. In addition, it would be technically unfeasible and economically untenable to capture and sequester or store more than a small fraction of all future emissions of greenhouse gases. And then we would still do nothing about the greenhouse gases that have already been emitted, gradually accumulating the atmospheric and aquatic content up to the acute levels that we see already today, causing Pacific & Carribean island and harbor inundations all around the world on strong winds (Google e.g: "Sandy 2012", "Katrina 2005", "hurricanes Harvey, Irma, Maria of September 2017").
Won't a future sustainable energy production be enough to deflect climate threats?
Historical and (vanishingly minuscule) forecast renewable energy production 2000 - 2040
Certainly, we need ecologically sustainable energy production in the longer term, but that deprives us not from our liability of promptly commencing cleaning up the outlet stacked for two hundred years. The impact from climate warming is like an oil tanker; reverse the engines and still it flows mile after mile before coming to a halt. Equivalently - eliminate the net inflow of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and to the oceans & lakes, thereby halting the level rise, and still years and years will go by before the effects will even be measurable (not least due to a galloping deforestation). We must then reverse the process in order actually to lower the level and bring the melting to a complete halt, thus enabling a certain rebuild of ice-masses around the globe in order to lower sea levels risen. We need luck in order to catch this before the methane (CH4), today frozen just beneath the surface layers of immense tundra areas and in hypothermic pockets of sea bottoms, begins to leak out. Methane is a 23 times more powerful greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide (CO2). We also need luck in order to catch this before Antarctica ice bodies start sliding into the sea by means of the melting shelf-ices, or before the Greenland ice increases its melt-off rate substantially. These events all individually constitute a watershed for our future - once an event has occurred, there is no way back, and disaster strikes. However much we should like to, we cannot push the ice back from the sea up on Antarctica's or Greenland's land areas, or put the methane gas back where it stems from. Thus, there is no time to lose.
Specifically what is it you at AES mean should be done?
We want to arouse public opinion and thereby induce a demand and a market for trading with recycled (regenerated) greenhouse gases. We know how it should be done, taking advantage of today's infrastructure, modern Nobel Prize (2013 for Chemistry) awarded knowledge and technology (an inspiration for our CatELab-APS/e3 virtual simulation software), as well as the Sun and the Earth's own resources in the form of water and sunlight - plus greenhouse gases, naturally. We want to transform greenhouse-gases from enemies into friends! We want to create a never-ceasing cycle of energy from fossil hydrocarbon-based fuels into greenhouse gases back into the hydrocarbon-based fuels and so on for virtually all days to come. To achieve this, We offer the global research community and all energy production market parties Our CatELab-APS/e3 solutions - conceptual blueprints with tools for multi-physics simulation and chemical-biological energy research. Unless bureaucracy, corruption, or terrorism are allowed to throw a spanner into the works, it should be possible to start a market-driven, profitable and truly large-scale production of directly usable energy out of recycled greenhouse gases sooner than a single new nuclear power plant could be conceived and built. But it deserves to be repeated that we have no time to lose in terms of further long-term research or unnecessary politicians' intervention - full steam ahead is now all that counts, departing from the best practices presently at our disposal, integrated with the knowledge and products that We and You through Arphosis.com can offer.
Large wind and solar power parks, wave, tidal and geothermal energy, biogas & biodiesel, and net trade in household electricity (widespread in for example Germany) are examples of sustainable energy. Furthermore, nuclear power plants "Gen IV" are to be built here and there. It this not enough?
Quite rightly, much is going on - but the expansion rate is so slow that we don't have time to wait for all these in order to avert the disaster of sea levels rising and oceans turning into soda water. And because the sun everywhere on earth except around the equator is weak that part of the year when it is most needed, and because the wind sometimes doesn't blow, such types of produced energy must be accumulated (e.g. giant battery packs, super-capacitors, pump elevated backwater etc) in order for it to be taken out and consumed in line with the customers' needs, sometimes during lengthy periods of time. Such accumulators do not exist today and are still far from the drawing board - a few hours consumption needs is all we today, at great expense, are able to accumulate. Bio energy production is today overly uneconomical and fossil energy-hungry, but interesting on a long term. Geothermal energy is so sporadically locally occurring that this perhaps better is suited for welfare, tourism, crop production or local properties' and installations' heating.
The LNG/ natural gas export from e.g. Norway and Russia (via the gas net through e.g. Ukraine, Poland, Germany, and in the Baltic Sea) increases continuously even to Sweden. Is this not a sustainable energy source? "From Russia with Gas". And from Norway. European gas infrastructure - the European Gas Transmission System.
No, natural gas is popular among those who market it, i.e. producers, sellers and politicians. The reason is that the former ones earn big money and that the politicians can point to a step in the direction of their decided environmental goals. Since coal emits 60% more greenhouse gases than natural gas with the same energy content, emissions of greenhouse gases are lowered by escaping from the equivalent quantity of coal. This is good for short term placed or political goals, but nothing for long-term planning environmental entrepreneurs to draw their attention to.
Are e.g. EU's climate targets or the Paris (formerly Kyoto - ... - Copenhagen) agreement adequate?
No, already today sea levels around the globe are rising by 4 millimeters a year, but due to change in ocean currents they're rising up to 3 times faster in some regions. For example, along the US east coast they now rise by 12 millimetres per year. Since the pre-industrial era, ocean levels have risen by approx 25 cm (again, in some regions 75 cm). And the pace is accelerating faster and faster. Furthermore, the clock is ticking away towards the unpleasant fact that gigantic chunks of Antarctica inland ice, several kilometers thick, is about to get a safe conduct towards the sea -- the shelf-ices surrounding the land mass in fact constitute the only barrier, and these lead a languishing life... The ice-chunks sliding out may entail tsunamis not ten, but a hundred metres high, propagating in all directions without too much weakening even with long distances. So, all the available facts slate those altogether far too low political climate targets' far too long-term itineraries and timelines. Some say that the EU-politicians' targets of 20% CO2 reduction by 2020 and 50% by 2050 ought to have been 50% by 2020 and 100% by 2050. Unfortunately, we say, not even this would be sufficient. The world is forecast to produce and consume 50% more energy in year 2050 than now, which means that EU's goal of 50% based on the year 2005 level has to account for 100% of the surplus between year 2005 and now PLUS 100% of the forecast increase between now and year 2050. A DOWNRIGHT IMPOSSIBLE task -- unless atmospheric & aquatic CO2 and atmospheric CH4 extraction techniques be employed!
Some people, not least politicians, believe that ETS (EU's Emissions Trading System) is a future love song.
Proud politician initiated market constructions such as the EU's ETS foremost stand out as embarrassing and tragic manifestations of ignorance demonstrated by the postulates produced, and rest fundamentally on passive approaches to actively doing something. Sales of emission rights - would they be an effective way of raising money for the benefit of serious and effective environmental initiatives? Or just an efficient way for those involved of filling their own pockets? And haven't companies in industrialized countries far too often acquired heaps of emission rights from low emitting companies in developing countries only for enabling themselves to continue with their own big emissions and buying themselves freedom from environmental responsibilities? The truth is that the current climate situation does not permit the trading of emissions rights at all. We must leave the passive concept in terms of emission limits and now instead jump-start the proactive concept implying regulation of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and in sea water. That concentration is already too high and must be lowered from today's levels, which are already melting off ice with a rippling sound, and keeps rising as you read this. Levels continue to rise due our energy production based on fossil fuels. In addition, due to the rampant deforestation and an increasing number of forest fires around Our entire planet -- even if emission rights trading plainly utopian would result in a completely halted emission of gases, the concentration would therefore keep rising just the same.
Who would grant authorization for active measures regulating the volumes of greenhouse gases in a positive direction?
To start with: second by second, day by day, year by year, a negatively spiraling control that nobody has authorised or needed to authorise in any single case, presently owns the global stage. In many countries you can unpreventedly knock up a new coal plant a week, like the Chinese are doing these days. And does anyone ask of You an authorization to buy a new car or drive Your car even though doing so actively regulates the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere & in the oceans - upwards! What we know now is that the level immediately must be forced downwards. In the coming years and for generations to come, we will of course need to establish and agree on which level optimally to equalize the concentration of greenhouse gases. There and only then the licensing of some kind would grow into the picture. But let us hope that all world citizens, companies and, if necessary even politicians, would be able to agree on a consensus resting on pragmatism, flexibility, fairness, and inevitable compromises. The important thing is that everyone must experience earning more than losing on doing this or that. Not least for democracy reasons, it will therefore also become more and more necessary to educate the young in environmental subjects as early as possible, in order to give them a fair chance to form their own opinion resting on profound knowledge, thereby provoking positive attitudes to altruistic and proactive environmental priorities and conception among rising generations. Something that too many of us adults prove to be in lack of.
Electric cars then, are not they a solution?
Historical and projected increases in global motor vehicle population, 1950–2030
In the US, all (road, sea, railroad, aviation) transportation account for 26%of today's emissions. Globally, it's 14%. Electricity production for 30% (US) and 25% (world), and industry for 21% in both. Agriculture, forestry and other commercial land use account for substantially lower emissions in the US than globally. Heavy goods vehicles and mobile working machines etc require so much power and energy consumption that electricity is not an applicable option there. Neither can sea vessels nor commercial airliners or feightliners be electrically propelled today. Electric vehicles and vessels are excellent as soon as their battery power charging energy is produced on an ecologically sustainable basis, but only then. Incidentally, We believe much in the planned nuclear power "GenIV" which is much more "housebroken" than previous generations of nuclear power, and fueled by old nuclear waste, leaving relatively harmless waste as remains. The terminal storage needs and all the problems around this could be minimized, and perhaps even be eliminated in the long run.
Could protective embankments along the coasts help?
Embankments/walls against... whatever IS NO WAY TO GO, especially not against elemental forces, like inundation.
Why not instead render those unnecessary? So simple, at comparatively no cost, takes just a new frame of mind & force of the people.
Absolutely, if we have the resources and time to build enormously strong, massive ramparts 70 meters high and 800 000 kilometers (500 000 miles) long, then let's just get started ... :) Astoundingly enough, we hear some complacent politicians in all seriousness discuss embankments as a need and a solution to "adapt" to the rising sea levels, without a word on what to do when these eventually become inadequate. "Attack the symptoms, not what's causing them" seems to be their obsession, just like a quack doctor knowing little about medicine. Apparently, no extensive formation activities are pursued in their quarters - which some called "Buffoon Temples". If all goes to hell, that will probably rather appear as a compliment (which it probably would also be perceived by one or another of these frivolous, ignorant and punch-drunk politicians).
This section will be featuring a selection of facts that we've dug out and that You'll dig out all by Yourself. Cause it's fun and easy!
You may comment on each document and supply links to your own documents - your private ones and those you wish to see public (upon our scrutiny).
We'll boast a menu of available facts and documents enabling juggling those ones you've already opened.
Our advanced cross-document, cross-web, cross-science database FleXray Anylyzer (re)search & analysis utility is herein integrated, enabling you to lay the most elaborate jigsaw-puzzles instantly all by yourself.
Stay tuned! You'll find entirely new ways of dealing with facts, resulting in an "Einsten - Holmes" crossover capability eliminating that tedious and confusing computer work we've been fed for all to long. To hell with the old school canteen, say hello to a dining mall to your exclusive likings!
Topics, among thousands upon thousands relevant ones out there, comprise e.g:
• artificial photosynthesis • scenarios & consequences • major world cities • greenhouse gas sources • climate & energy • demography & population at risk • flooding maps (in new tab): flood.firetree.net & geology.com/sea-level-rise
Information sources are uncountable & tough to juggle.
Except right in here - So go find it all out 4 Yourself !!'
more coming soon!
»Top Topics • artificial photosynthesis • scenarios & consequences • major world cities & pop'n ... more ... »Trending Now • greenhouse gas sources • climate & energy • demography & pop'n at risk ... more ...
Compiled facts & docs
• greenhouse gas sources • climate & energy • demography & pop'n at risk ... more ... »
My faved facts & docs
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OUR SOLUTIONS SECTION
"One is compelled to save energy if one produces it in a dangerous manner, like we do now. But if not, I don't see any reason for us being compelled to save energy in the future" / Brian Cox, famous particle physicist, Manchester
SOLUTIONS & PRODUCT CONCEPTS
Atmospheric and Aquatic GreenHouse Gases (GHGs) constitute a clean, cheap energy resource for as long as we like them to.
Converting them by cyclic CCR (APS)* techniques render us eternal energy, a replacement for fossil fuels.
*APS=Applied Artificial PhotoSynthesis (thousandfold more efficient than natural photosynthesis in plants) *CCR=Carbon (dioxide) Capture and Recycle (instead of Store/Sequester as with CCS)
Big Oil have no Climate Action plan, just their Business As Usual plan
Turning air into fuel. Turning Greenhouse Gases into new energy. Turning bad waste into things of good. Super-efficiently and at low costs.
Those events would undoubtedly imply a dream come true to every entrepreneurial minded scientist as well as energy producer.
There is a clear trend pointing in the direction of more and more laboratories and scientists determinably and successfully endeavoring into the hunt for GHG conversion into clean fuels.
This implies that the time when new markets for those new products will emerge may be here sooner than expected.
Our vision and our business aim is steadfast: we mean to help procure the world's energy producers with an arsenal of techniques to produce clean, cheap fuels at low costs, simultaneously turning what is slowly killing us all into profitable merchandise, instead miraculously beneficial to us all.
Fossil Emissions 0 in our Monocular - from Enairgy Magic? No, Simple Logic!
Our CatELab-APS/e3 software will enable the elaboration of catalysts suitable for various conditions and applications: 》
》 diluted atmospheric and seawater-dissolved GHGs at various temperatures and at normal atmospheric - aquatic pressures » view more
》 concentrated car exhaust outlet GHGs at high temperatures and elevated gas pressure (compare with today's NO2 + CO + HC* transforming catalytic converters, in many countries mandatory underneath every modern car) » view more
》 concentrated industry and power plant smokestack GHGs at reduced temperatures and moderate pressure » view more
》 any today not anticipated application dealing with any range of concentration, temperature and pressure
》 Also of course, adapted to the type of fuel the energy producer desires to output at any given facility or mobile catalytic converter setup
This implies that we have designed our software to work with any given combined level of those four or five production conditions, be they high or low, dense or diluted, hot or cold, respectively.
At the end of the day we aim to offer a software that can be managed in a simple way by non-scientist personnel, simply operated through intuitive web browser interface parameter calibrations of the anticipated transformation process input conditions as well as the desired outputs by turn.
Not improbable to us at AES, our software may go down in history as The Major Turning Point in turning our energy production paradigm over — from the old one based on a disgraceful,fossil-fuels centeredBig Oil Friendly Agenda — into the new one based on a climate remedial, net minus emissions centered, Renewable Fuels- & Planetary Resilience- Friendly Agenda. That Turning Point is second in line to this 1: ➽ FUNDING
Relevant categories of Physics within JACS Joint Academic Classification of Subjects:
— Applied P.
— Atmospheric & Oceanic P.
— Atomic P.
— Atomic & Molecular Clusters
— Bayesian Analysis
— Biological P.
— Chemical P.
— Classical P.
— Computational P.
— Data Analysis, Statistics & Probability
— Fluid Dynamics
— General P.
— High Energy P.
— Instrumentation & Detectors
— Mathematical P.
— Plasma P.
— Thermal P.
working on it...
Relevant categories of Chemistry within the arXiv.org classification standards:
What do you think of when you hear the word chemist? A person in white lab coat and goggles that mixes liquids in toxic colors in different glass containers? It is far from today's reality and an image that Jonas Boström hopes can help change.
"It's a very stereotype, and often incorrect, picture of what a chemist does. Today, many chemical experiments are performed digitally. For example, one can determine the different geometries of a molecule in the computer and then use that information to design new molecules, or materials, with improved properties. Experiments in computer are much more cost effective than experiments in real life", he says.
working on it...
Relevant categories of Biology within JACS Joint Academic Classification of Subjects:
Relevant categories of BioChemistry within JACS Joint Academic Classification of Subjects:
》 Bionics - Bioneering
working on it...
Relevant categories of Bionics - Bioneering within JACS Joint Academic Classification of Subjects:
Bionics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology.
The transfer of technology between lifeforms and manufactures is, according to proponents of bionic technology, desirable because evolutionary pressure typically forces living organisms, including fauna and flora, to become highly optimized and efficient. A classical example is the development of dirt- and water-repellent paint (coating) from the observation that the surface of the lotus flower plant is practically unsticky for anything (the lotus effect).
The term "biomimetic" is preferred when reference is made to chemical reactions. In that domain, biomimetic chemistry refers to reactions that, in nature, involve biological macromolecules (e.g. enzymes or nucleic acids) whose chemistry can be replicated in vitro using much smaller molecules.
Examples of bionics in engineering include the hulls of boats imitating the thick skin of dolphins; sonar, radar, and medical ultrasound imaging imitating animal echolocation.
In the field of computer science, the study of bionics has produced artificial neurons, artificial neural networks, and swarm intelligence. Evolutionary computation was also motivated by bionics ideas but it took the idea further by simulating evolution in silico and producing well-optimized solutions that had never appeared in nature.
It is estimated by Julian Vincent, professor of biomimetics at the University of Bath's Department of Mechanical Engineering, that "at present there is only a 12% overlap between biology and technology in terms of the mechanisms used".
Biologically inspired engineering:
Biologically inspired engineering is a new scientific discipline that applies biological principles to develop new engineering solutions for medicine, industry, and the environment. The emergence of this new discipline unifies the life sciences with engineering and the physical sciences. Biologically inspired engineering involves exploration into the way that living cells, tissues, and organisms build, control, manufacture, recycle, and adapt to their environment. Bioinspired engineers leverage this knowledge to develop new technologies and translate them into products that meet real world challenges.
Biologically inspired engineering is an interdisciplinary field encompassing many specialty areas in biology (molecular cell biology, genetic engineering, developmental biology, organismal biology, clinical medicine), engineering (biomedical engineering, chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, robotics), and the physical sciences (chemistry, physics, materials science, and nanotechnology). Integrated research programs in this area span many of these disciplines and include biomimicry, as well as analysis of the way that living systems form and function using self-assembling nanomaterials, complex dynamic networks, non-linear dynamical control, self-organizing behavior, evolution, and natural selection.
》 Biomimetics/ Biomimicry
working on it...
Relevant categories of Biomimetics/ Biomimicry within JACS Joint Academic Classification of Subjects:
Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems. A closely related field is bionics.
Living organisms have evolved well-adapted structures and materials over geological time through natural selection. Biomimetics has given rise to new technologies inspired by biological solutions at macro and nanoscales. Humans have looked at nature for answers to problems throughout our existence. Nature has solved engineering problems such as self-healing abilities, environmental exposure tolerance and resistance, hydrophobicity, self-assembly, and harnessing solar energy.
Biomorphic mineralization is a technique that produces materials with morphologies and structures resembling those of natural living organisms by using bio-structures as templates for mineralization. Compared to other methods of material production, biomorphic mineralization is facile, environmentally benign and economic.
ex -> Microstructures that create its coloring effect through structural coloration rather than pigmentation, like some butterflies.
ex -> "Mirasol" display technology uses Interferometric Modulation to reflect light so only the desired color is visible in each individual pixel of the display.
Further information: Structural coloration and Patterns in nature
Possible future applications
Biomimetics could in principle be applied in many fields. Because of the complexity of biological systems, the number of features that might be imitated is large. Biomimetic applications are at various stages of development from technologies that might become commercially usable to prototypes.
ex -> In structural engineering, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) has incorporated biomimetic characteristics in an adaptive deployable "tensegrity" bridge. The bridge can carry out self-diagnosis and self-repair.
ex -> Termites' ability to maintain virtually constant temperature and humidity in their termite mounds in Africa despite outside temperatures that vary from 1.5 °C to 40°C (35 °F to 104 °F).
ex -> Bees' ability to maintain a virtually constant 25 °C temperature inside their beehives all through the harshest winter and hottest summer.
ex -> Mussels' ability for underwater adhesion regardless of contaminants on surfaces and harsh conditions of the ocean.
ex -> Spider web silk is as strong as the Kevlar used in bulletproof vests and could be apt for i.a. parachute lines, suspension bridge cables, artificial ligaments for medicine. More examples
working on it...
Relevant categories of Nanotechnology within JACS Joint Academic Classification of Subjects:
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotech referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotech. A more generalized description of nanotech was subsequently established by the National Nanotech Initiative, which defines nanotech as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold.
Because of the variety of potential applications (including industrial and military), governments have invested billions of dollars in nanotech research.
Nanotech as defined by size is naturally very broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, energy storage, microfabrication, molecular engineering, etc. The associated research and applications are equally diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale.
Scientists currently debate the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotech are envisioned to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in nanomedicine, nanoelectronics, biomaterials energy production, and consumer products.
》 Environmental Science
working on it...
Relevant categories of Environmental Science within JACS Joint Academic Classification of Subjects:
》 Computer Science
working on it...
Relevant categories of Computer Science within the ACM Computing Classification System:
— Artificial Intelligence
— Computational Complexity
— Computational Engineering, Finance, and Science
— Computational Geometry
— Computer Science and Game Theory
— Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
— Data Structures and Algorithms
— Digital Libraries
— Discrete Mathematics
— Distributed, Parallel, and Cluster Computing
— Emerging Technologies
— Formal Languages and Automata Theory
— 2D- & 3D-Graphics
— Human-Computer Interaction
— Information Retrieval
— Machine Learning
— Computer Logic
— Multiagent Systems
— Neural and Evolutionary Computing
— Social and Information Networks
— Software Engineering
— Symbolic Computation
— Systems and Control
》 Numerical Simulation
working on it...
Relevant categories of Numerical Simulation within JACS Joint Academic Classification of Subjects:
》 Nonlinear Science
working on it...
Relevant categories of Nonlinear Science within JACS Joint Academic Classification of Subjects:
Relevant categories of Electricity within JACS Joint Academic Classification of Subjects:
Relevant samples of related images in snatches of scientific objects dealt with in process analyzes 》
》 Hydrogenation to Methanol over Cu/Zn-Based Catalysts.
CO and CO2, on copper, can be hydrogenated to methanol, but not at the same time. The former reaction is poisoned by CO2 and requires a carbophilic Cu step, whereas the latter reaction requires a Zn promoter and proceeds as an oxophilic Cu/Zn step.
》 Alternate routes to production of methanol based fuels. More recently, methanol has been considered as an alternative fuel. A new process is hydrogenation of CO2 for methanol production. The dominating production method of methanol synthesis is through the synthesis gas process first developed during the 1920s. A gas mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (usually also carbon dioxide), known as synthesis gas (syngas) is the basis for almost all methanol production today. An attractive alternative is enzymatic conversion, although most research in this area is currently focused on ethanol production. While biomass and other waste materials is a possible and probable route to gradually decrease our dependence on fossil energy sources there are technologies available that allows us to produce methanol and at the same time reduce the carbon dioxide emissions into our atmosphere & oceans. The process consists of combining hydrogen and carbon dioxide to produce methanol with the only by-product being oxygen from the elect. The instance when suffiently low production costs allow for attractive consumer products, existing as well as new markets are most likely to surge explosively, leaving Big Fossil once and for all helplessly behind.
》 POPC lipid membrane and water molecules covering the surfaces of two lipid leaflets — 3D data rendering by VMD modeling software
POPC is a phosphatidylcholine. It is a diacylglycerol and phospholipid. The full name is 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. It is an important phospholipid for biophysical experiments and has been used to study various subjects such as lipid rafts. POPC also used in systems mimicking the cell membrane such as Nanodiscs. It is available commercially synthetically and is naturally present in eukaryotic cell membranes.
CO2 capture can be carried out through four main processes: post-combustion, pre-combustion, oxy-combustion and industrial processes separation. Diverting compressed CO2 for subsequent Storage (a.k.a. "Sequestration") as with CCS implies a Pyramidal Waste of Energy, intrinsic in the Carbon portion of CO2, CO, and CH4... and hence of course also a Pyramidal Waste of Money!
Options for retracting the Carbon (i.e. Energy) portion of the captured CO2 and recombining it with Hydrogen into hydrocarbons, alternatively with additional oxygen into alcohols, today being developed globally include »
» the biochemical conversion of CO2 into algal biofuel,
» the thermochemical conversion into methanol, and
» the biocatalytic or solar photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to fuels.
This has been going on for quite some time, a decade or more in each case. But no CCR products have found their way out on markets as yet.
Or things get in the way... like uncompetitive production costs... entailing unattractive retailer prices.
Our applied model of Reutilizing the GHG intrinsic Carbon Energy ensuing the Capture operation step, in those four main processes, schematically comes out accordingly:
The CO2 capture and separation steps are most wisely ensued by CCR (R for Recycle and Reutilization) steps... "Don't Waste Your Energy!". CO2 capture ensued by reutilization of the Carbon portion through Hydrogen and (any) Oxygen recombination in CCR processes into new fuels (dotted orange parts) — synthetic, therefore fossil-outcompeting — liquid (gasoline/petrol/kerosene etc) or gaseous (methane/buthane/propane etc) or solid (coal/utilities) HYDROCARBONS, ALCOHOLS (ethanol/methanol), and tars, waxes, plastics commodity (ethylene etc).
"Well, talk is cheap", I've overheard some people utter or mutter, most likely ignorant of the tasks and challenges involved herein.
Because, in order to induce new markets out of new products, they have have to come at competitive pricing — market economies simply work that way.
And here lay the difficulties: low production prices is the trick of the tail, and in this sense, this noble art is a one-trick pony.
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CCS ... Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is being hailed as the answer to the globe's most pressing question: what to do with the 43 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide emitted yearly from the burning of fossil fuels? Touted as the most promising interim solution to deal with the greenhouse gas responsible for global warming, CCS still remains unproven, costly and will not be commercially available for another 10-20 years. Meanwhile scientists are exploring alternatives to CCS by capitalizing on CO2 as a commodity instead of treating it as a waste.
43 billion tons of CO2 is already a hefty number but energy-related carbon dioxide emissions are projected to reach 58 billion metric tons per year by 2030, an increase of 35%. A new report by the International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that growing energy demands from emerging giants like China and India, coupled with a lack of cost-effective alternatives to fossil fuels means that by 2050, 77% of the world's power will still be derived from fossil fuels.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS), the process of capturing carbon dioxide and storing it in deep geological formations, in the deep ocean floor or as mineral carbonates, is being promoted by the IEA and others as the most promising technology to deal with fossil-fuel derived emissions. Not negating the role of alternative energies, the IEA is merely realistic about the enduring use of fossil fuels and the urgent need to deal with the resulting carbon dioxide.
Nevertheless, several massive hurdles still stand in the way of full-scale CCS deployment. UK consulting firm McKinsey figures that adding CCS to the next generation of European power plants could lift their price by up to $1.3S billion each. Their thorough analysis (www.mckinsey.com) shows that the typical cost of a demonstration project is likely to be in the range of $80-$120 per ton of CO2 sequestered. Legally, there are concerns over whether CO2 transport and long-term storage present human or ecosystem related risks and who is ultimately responsible if a leak occurs. While progress is underway in some countries, no country has yet developed the comprehensive, detailed legal and regulatory framework that is necessary to effectively govern the use of CCS.
So why expensively transport and store the CO2 underground when it could be profitably recycled post-capture?
Researchers and start-up companies are now investigating a wide range of CO2 conversion methods.
Some have published results — the closest to market incentives we can discern are CO2 transformation success into DME (DiMethylEther) and Methanol alcohol. But, and that's a BIG But, at predicted horrendous full-scale production costs — due to production requisites including i.a. high temperature and/or pressure implying high costs already in themselves but also in need for very robust, withstanding production equipment - pressure, heat, corrosion etc, dictating needs for e.g. equipment size, piping thickness, choice of materials etc.
The following material is compiled chiefly from Wikipedia. A more complete, lucid, to-the-point and yet comparatively concise material is probably nowhere to be found. Impressive. Where we deem enhancing or emphasizing certain sections of it, we have completed (in line with Wikipedia terms of usage) it with material of our own or of other origin. Searching Wikipedia for "Carbon Capture and Recycling" or "Carbon Capture and Utilization" (or any subset or alternative thereof) will i.a. render the below portrayal of Carbon-neutral fuels — albeit, as said, modified at places. Enjoy!
Carbon-neutral fuels are used in Germany and Iceland for distributed storage of renewable energy, minimizing problems of wind and solar intermittency, and enabling transmission of wind, water, and solar power through existing natural gas pipelines. Such renewable fuels could alleviate the costs and dependency issues of imported fossil fuels without requiring either electrification of the vehicle fleet or conversion to hydrogen or other fuels, enabling continued compatible and affordable vehicles. A 250 kilowatt synthetic methane plant has been built in Germany and it is being scaled up to 10 megawatts.
Carbon-neutral fuels are synthetic hydrocarbons. They can be produced in chemical reactions between carbon dioxide, which can be captured from power plants, from the sea or the air, and hydrogen, which is created by the electrolysis of water using renewable energy. The fuel, often referred to as electrofuel, stores the energy that was used in the production of the hydrogen. Coal can also be used to produce the hydrogen, but that would not be a carbon-neutral source. Carbon dioxide can be captured and buried, making fossil fuels carbon-neutral, although not renewable. Carbon capture from exhaust gas can make carbon-neutral fuels carbon negative. Other hydrocarbons can be broken down to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide which could then be stored while the hydrogen is used for energy or fuel, which would also be carbon-neutral.
The most energy-efficient fuel to produce is hydrogen gas, which can be used in hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, and which requires the fewest process steps to produce.
Methanol can be made from a chemical reaction of a carbon-dioxide molecule with three hydrogen molecules to produce methanol and water. The stored energy can be recovered by burning the methanol in a combustion engine, releasing carbon dioxide, water, and heat. Methane can be produced in a similar reaction. Special precautions against methane leaks are important since methane is nearly 100 times as potent as CO2, in terms of Global warming potential. More energy can be used to combine methanol or methane into larger hydrocarbon fuel molecules.
Researchers have also suggested using methanol to produce dimethyl ether. This fuel could be used as a substitute for diesel fuel due to its ability to self ignite under high pressure and temperature. It is already being used in some areas for heating and energy generation. It is nontoxic, but must be stored under pressure. Larger hydrocarbons and ethanol can also be produced from carbon dioxide and hydrogen.
All synthetic hydrocarbons are generally produced at temperatures of 200–300 °C, and at pressures of 20 to 50 bar. Catalysts are usually used to improve the efficiency of the reaction and create the desired type of hydrocarbon fuel. Such reactions are exothermic and use about 3 mol of hydrogen per mole of carbon dioxide involved. They also produce large amounts of water as a byproduct.
Sources of carbon for recycling
The most economical source of carbon for recycling into fuel is flue-gas emissions from fossil-fuel combustion where it can be obtained for about USD $7.50 per ton. Automobile exhaust gas capture has also been seen as economical but would require extensive design changes or retrofitting. Since carbonic acid in seawater is in chemical equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide, extraction of carbon from seawater has been studied. Researchers have estimated that carbon extraction from seawater would cost about $50 per ton.Carbon capture from ambient air is more costly, at between $600 and $1000 per ton and is considered impractical for fuel synthesis or carbon sequestration. Direct air capture is less developed than other methods. Proposals for this method involve using a caustic chemical to react with carbon dioxide in the air to produce carbonates. These can then be broken down and hydrated to release pure CO2 gas and regenerate the caustic chemical. This process requires more energy than other methods because carbon dioxide is at much lower concentrations in the atmosphere than in other sources.
Researchers have also suggested using biomass as a carbon source for fuel production. Adding hydrogen to the biomass would reduce its carbon to produce fuel. This method has the advantage of using plant matter to cheaply capture carbon dioxide. The plants also add some chemical energy to the fuel from biological molecules. This may be a more efficient use of biomass than conventional biofuel because it uses most of the carbon and chemical energy from the biomass instead of releasing as much energy and carbon. Its main disadvantage is, as with conventional ethanol production, it competes with food production.
Nighttime wind power is considered the most economical form of electrical power with which to synthesize fuel, because the load curve for electricity peaks sharply during the warmest hours of the day, but wind tends to blow slightly more at night than during the day. Therefore, the price of nighttime wind power is often much less expensive than any alternative. Off-peak wind power prices in high wind penetration areas of the U.S. averaged 1.64 cents per kilowatt-hour in 2009, but only 0.71 cents/kWh during the least expensive six hours of the day. Typically, wholesale electricity costs 2 to 5 cents/kWh during the day. Commercial fuel synthesis companies suggest they can produce gasoline for less than petroleum fuels when oil costs more than $55 per barrel.
The U.S. Navy estimates that 100 megawatts of electricity can produce 41,000 gallons of jet fuel per day and shipboard production from nuclear power would cost about $6 per gallon. While that was about twice the petroleum fuel cost in 2010, it is expected to be much less than the market price in less than five years if recent trends continue. Moreover, since the delivery of fuel to a carrier battle group costs about $8 per gallon, shipboard production is already much less expensive.
Demonstration projects and commercial development
A 250 kilowatt methane synthesis plant was constructed by the Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW) at Baden-Württemberg and the Fraunhofer Society in Germany and began operating in 2010. It is being upgraded to 10 megawatts, scheduled for completion in autumn, 2012.
Carbon-neutral fuels might lead to greenhouse gas remediation because carbon dioxide gas would be reused to produce fuel instead of being released into the atmosphere. Capturing the carbon dioxide in flue gas emissions from power plants would eliminate their greenhouse gas emissions, although burning the fuel in vehicles would release that carbon because there is no economical way to capture those emissions. This approach would reduce net carbon dioxide emission by about 50% if it were used on all fossil fuel power plants. Most coal and natural gas power plants have been predicted to be economically retrofittable with carbon dioxide scrubbers for carbon capture to recycle flue exhaust or for carbon sequestration. Such recycling is expected to not only cost less than the excess economic impacts of climate change if it were not done, but also to pay for itself as global fuel demand growth and peak oil shortages increase the price of petroleum and fungiblenatural gas.
Capturing CO2 directly from the air or extracting carbonic acid from seawater would also reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the environment, and create a closed cycle of carbon to eliminate new carbon dioxide emissions. Use of these methods would eliminate the need for fossil fuels entirely, assuming that enough renewable energy could be generated to produce the fuel. Using synthetic hydrocarbons to produce synthetic materials such as plastics could result in permanent sequestration of carbon from the atmosphere.
Some authorities have recommended producing methanol instead of traditional transportation fuels. It is a liquid at normal temperatures and can be toxic if ingested. Methanol has a higher octane rating than gasoline but a lower energy density, and can be mixed with other fuels or used on its own. It may also be used in the production of more complex hydrocarbons and polymers. Direct methanol fuel cells have been developed by Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory to convert methanol and oxygen into electricity. It is possible to convert methanol into gasoline, jet fuel or other hydrocarbons, but that requires additional energy and more complex production facilities. Methanol is slightly more corrosive than traditional fuels, requiring automobile modifications on the order of USD $100 each to use it.
In 2016, a method using carbon spikes, copper nanoparticles and nitrogen that converts carbon dioxide to ethanol was developed.
Investigation of carbon-neutral fuels has been ongoing for decades. A 1965 report suggested synthesizing methanol from carbon dioxide in air using nuclear power for a mobile fuel depot. Shipboard production of synthetic fuel using nuclear power was studied in 1977 and 1995. A 1984 report studied the recovery of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel plants. A 1995 report compared converting vehicle fleets for the use of carbon-neutral methanol with the further synthesis of gasoline.
Jump up ^Graves, Christopher; Ebbesen, Sune D.; Mogensen, Mogens; Lackner, Klaus S. (2011). "Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO2 and H2O with renewable or nuclear energy". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15 (1): 1–23. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2010.07.014. (Review.)
Jump up ^Graves, Christopher; Ebbesen, Sune D.; Mogensen, Mogens (2011). "Co-electrolysis of CO2 and H2O in solid oxide cells: Performance and durability". Solid State Ionics. 192 (1): 398–403. doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2010.06.014.
McDonald, Thomas M.; Lee, Woo Ram; Mason, Jarad A.; Wiers, Brian M.; Hong, Chang Seop; Long, Jeffrey R. (2012). "Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine-Appended Metal–Organic Framework mmen-Mg2(dobpdc)". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 134 (16): 7056–65. doi:10.1021/ja300034j. — has 10 citing articles as of September 2012, many of which discuss efficiency and cost of air and flue recovery.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Often only tiny amounts of catalyst are required.
In general, reactions occur faster with a catalyst because they require less activation energy. In catalyzed mechanisms, the catalyst usually reacts to form a temporary intermediate which then regenerates the original catalyst in a cyclic process.
Catalysts may be classified as either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are dispersed in the same phase (usually gaseous or liquid) as the reactant molecules. A heterogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are not in the same phase as the reactants, which are typically gases or liquids that are adsorbed onto the surface of the solid catalyst. Enzymes and other biocatalysts* are often considered as a third category. * Biocatalysts eligible inside catalytic [multi-step] processes, e.g: bacteria, algae, fungus, enzymes, vitamins, trace elements, minerals, nano carriers, zeolites.
To define the real requirements for the implementation of SBES technologies, we require a new paradigm of software development. Such a fundamental change calls for a great deal of “out-of-the box” thinking about the way we approach software development and practice engineering. […] Not only will tomorrow’s software developers have to cope with more complex systems and heterogeneous hardware systems, but they will also have to understand the important details of the applications.
Our CatELab-APS/e3 catalytic process elaboration simulation engineering software with integrated E-Lab is a forceful answer to that new paradigm of software development requirement! It embodies a science-based simulation “reactor” kernel and a virtual lab that together emulate but by light-years outdo any imaginable traditional analog laboratory setup and configuration found or conceived in the real world. —> (view also:MSBSE handbook | Wikipedia on web-based simulation | computer sim. | modeling & sim. | process sim.)
CatELab-APS/e3Catalytic Process Elaborator (or Catalyst E-Lab) applying Artificial PhotoSynthesis (APS)/ energy-ecology-economy (e3) sustainable solutions — our integrated research software for resource resilient, climate neutral energy production in iterative, perpetual processes.
Photocatalyst oxidation & photocatalyst reduction + synthesis processes as viewed in a CatELab-APS/e3 virtual lab simulator 3D-model)
Our CatELab-APS/e3 catalyst elaboration simulation engineering software elaborates GHG-to-fuel CCR transformed conversion processes by tailoring the catalyst required for meeting the producer’s desired fuel type output in any given inter-combined environmental condition setup with respect to GHG compound and its density, temperature, pressure, and more. All is achieved in separate but integrated process steps:
» Photocatalyst (or Non-) designed to do what green leaves do in the initial step of natural photosynthesis by means of a (one of many types of) Chlorophyll emulating (only desirably thousands-fold more efficiently) catalyst molecule – in order to boast a fuel production satisfying the not least important of the three viably indispensible ‘e‘ letters of our software’s nominal e3 notion: economy.
This step is however not mandatory for the ensuing second dual-step-process to come alive, while the H2O (water) split that occurs in step 1 easily and often favorably could be substituted for hydrogen plus-ion production by means of electrolysis of water, yielding an identical result: feeding H+ ions into step 2 processes.
» A dual process step commenced by splitting CO2 Carbondioxide into CO Carbonmonoxide and O Oxygen (formula: 2CO2 -> 2CO + O2) in the presence of a fit Chlorophyll emulating (only also here thousands-fold more efficient) catalyst molecule. The first part of this dual process step is then ensued by combining the CO Carbonmonoxide with the H+ Hydrogen, free electrons supplied by step (1) or by electrolysis, and possibly O Oxygen into various hydrocarbon, solid carbon, or alcohol fuels or other type of product, whose output type is determined by the type of catalyst molecule present. The economic satisfaction of a certain process taking place is determined by the output volumes (the output rates) in relation to the process parameter settings (the input values of density, temperature, pressure, and any other entity that may or may not come into play).
more coming soon!
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ATMOSPHERIC & AQUATIC WASTE ENERGY RECOVERYbr>
This is the conceptual principle outline for the APS atmospheric & aquatic energy retraction concept — put simply, the magic that goes on inside of it, visualizing the wonders of catalytically aided chemical, biological, biochemical and other [combined] processes:
Simple is beautiful, as with all sustainable notions.
In order to separate greenhouse gases like Carbondioxide CO2, we need an adsorbent. The following material is compiled chiefly from Wikipedia. An impressive exposure of scientific facts on the subject. Where we deem enhancing or emphasizing certain sections of it, we have completed (in line with Wikipedia terms of usage) it with material of our own or of other origin. Searching Wikipedia for "Solid sorbents for carbon capture" (or any subset or alternative thereof) will i.a. render the below portrayal of Carbon capture sorbents — albeit, as said, modified at places. Enjoy!
An adsorbent is an insoluble material coated by liquid on the surface, including capillaries and pores. A material is said to be adsorbent when it has the capacity to contain a definite amount of liquid in small chambers similar to a sponge. Adsorbents play a vital role in chemical absorption, which takes place when a certain substance is trapped on a material's surface. Adsorption is the process of a liquid or gas accumulating on a liquid or solid surface, building an atomic or molecular film. It is substantially different from the process of absorption, where a substance goes through diffusion into a solid or liquid to produce a solution.
Adsorbents, through the process of adsorption, are operative in almost all systems such as chemical, biological and physical. They also play a major role in industry, with many applications such as in water purification, activated charcoal and synthetic resins.
Adsorbents are also useful in causing waste heat to produce cold water intended for air conditioning as well as other processes.
In industry, adsorbent composition is very beneficial in slowing corrosion in various equipment and machinery, such as in mufflers.
The most significant impediment to carbon capture is the large amount of electricity required. Without policy or taxincentives, the production of electricity from such plants is not competitive with other energy sources. The largest operating cost for power plants with carbon capture is the reduction in the amount of electricity produced, because energy in the form of steam is diverted from making electricity in the turbines to regenerating the sorbent. Thus, minimizing the amount of energy required for sorbent regeneration is the primary goal behind much carbon capture research.
Significant uncertainty exists around the total cost of post-combustion CO2 capture because full-scale demonstrations of the technology have yet to come online. Thus, individual performance metrics are generally relied upon when comparisons are made between different adsorbents.
Regeneration energy—Generally expressed in energy consumed per weight of CO2 captured (e.g. 3,000 kJ/kg). These values, if calculated directly from the latent and sensible heat components of regeneration, measure the total amount of energy required for regeneration.
Parasitic energy—Similar to regeneration energy, but measures how much usable energy is lost. Owing to the imperfect thermal efficiency of power plants, not all of the heat required to regenerate the sorbent would actually have produced electricity.
Adsorption capacity—The amount of CO2 adsorbed onto the material under the relevant adsorption conditions.
Working capacity—The amount of CO2 that can be expected to be captured by a specified amount of adsorbent during one adsorption–desorption cycle. This value is generally more relevant than the total adsorption capacity.
Selectivity—The calculated ability of an adsorbent to preferentially adsorb one gas over another gas. Multiple methods of reporting selectivity have been reported and in general values from one method are not comparable to values from another method. Similarly, values are highly correlated to temperature and pressure.
Aqueous amine solutions absorb CO2 via the reversible formation of ammonium carbamate, ammonium carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate. The formation of these species and their relative concentration in solution is dependent upon the specific amine or amines as well as the temperature and pressure of the gas mixture. At low temperatures, CO2 is preferentially absorbed by the amines and at high temperatures CO2 is desorbed. While liquid amine solutions have been used industrially to remove acid gases for nearly a century, amine scrubber technology is still under development at the scale required for carbon capture.
Multiple advantages of solid sorbents have been reported. Unlike amines, solid sorbents can selectively adsorb CO2 without the formation of chemical bonds (physisorption). The significantly lower heat of adsorption for solids requires less energy for the CO2 to desorb from the material surface. Also, two primary or secondary amine molecules are generally required to absorb a single CO2 molecule in liquids. For solid surfaces, large capacities of CO2 can be adsorbed. For temperature swing adsorption processes, the lower heat capacity of solids has been reported to reduce the sensible energy required for sorbent regeneration. Many environmental concerns over liquid amines can be eliminated by the use of solid adsorbents.
Manufacturing costs are expected to be significantly greater than the cost of simple amines. Because flue gas contains trace impurities that degrade sorbents, solid sorbents may prove to be prohibitively expensive. Significant engineering challenges must be overcome. Sensible energy required for sorbent regeneration cannot be effectively recovered if solids are used, offsetting their significant heat capacity savings. Additionally, heat transfer through a solid bed is slow and inefficient, making it difficult and expensive to cool the sorbent during adsorption and heat it during desorption. Lastly, many promising solid adsorbents have been measured only under ideal conditions, which ignores the potentially significant effects H2O can have on working capacity and regeneration energy.
Carbon dioxide adsorbs in appreciable quantities onto many porous materials through van der Waals interactions. Compared to N2, CO2 adsorbs more strongly because the molecule is more polarizabable and possesses a larger quadrupole moment. However, stronger adsorptives including H2O often interfere with the physical adsorption mechanism. Thus, discovering porous materials that can selectively bind CO2 under flue gas conditions using only a physical adsorption mechanism is an active research area.
Zeolites, a class of porous aluminosilicate solids, are currently used in a wide variety of industrial and commercial applications including CO2 separation. The capacities and selectivities of many zeolites are among the highest for adsorbents that rely upon physisorption. For example, zeolite Ca-A (5A) has been reported to display both a high capacity and selectivity for CO2 over N2 under conditions relevant for carbon capture from coal flue gas, although it has not been tested in the presence of H2O. Industrially, CO2 and H2O can be co-adsorbed on a zeolite, but high temperatures and a dry gas stream are required to regenerate the sorbent.
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising adsorbents. Sorbents displaying a diverse set of properties have been reported. MOFs with extremely large surface areas are generally not among the best for CO2 capture compared to materials with at least one adsorption site that can polarize CO2. For example, MOFs with open metal coordination sites function as Lewis acids and strongly polarize CO2. Owing to CO2's greater polarizability and quadrupole moment, CO2 is preferentially adsorbed over many flue gas components such as N2. However, flue gas contaminants such as H2O often interfere. MOFs with specific pore sizes, tuned specifically to preferentially adsorb CO2 have been reported. 2015 studies using dolomite based solid sorbents and the MgO-based or CaO-based sorbent showed high capability and durability at elevated temperatures and pressures.
Amine impregnated solids
Frequently, porous adsorbents with large surface areas, but only weak adsorption sites, lack sufficient capacity for CO2 under realistic conditions. To increase low pressure CO2 adsorption capacity, adding amine functional groups to highly porous materials has been reported to result in new adsorbents with higher capacities. This strategy has been analyzed for polymers, silicas, activated carbons and metal-organic frameworks. Amine impregnated solids utilize the well-established acid-base chemistry of CO2 with amines, but dilute the amines by containing them within the pores of solids rather than as H2O solutions. Amine impregnated solids are reported to maintain their adsorption capacity and selectivity under humid test conditions better than alternatives. For example, a 2015 study of 15 solid adsorbent candidates for CO2 capture found that under multicomponent equilibrium adsorption conditions simulating humid flue gas, only adsorbents functionalized with alkylamines retained a significant capacity for CO2.
Jump up ^Mason, J. A.; McDonald, T. M.; Bae, T.-H.; Bachman, J. E.; Sumida, K.; Dutton, J. J.; Kaye, S. S.; Long, J. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 137,4787-4803.
Jump up ^Y. Lin, Q. Yan, C. Kong, L. Chen, Scientific Reports, 2013, 3, Article number: 1859.
Jump up ^McDonald, T. M.; Lee, W. R.; Mason, J. A.; Wiers, B. M.; Hong, C. S.; Long, J. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc.2012, 134, 7056-7065.
Jump up ^McDonald, T. M.; Mason, J. A.; Kong, X.; Bloch, E. D.; Gygi, D.; Dani, A.; Crocellà, V.; Giordanino, F.; Odoh, S. O.; Drisdell, W. S.; Vlaisavljevich, B.; Dzubak, A. L.; Poloni, R.; Schnell, S. K.; Planas, N.; Lee, K.; Pascal, T.; Wan, L. F.; Prendergast, D.; Neaton, J. B.; Smit, B.; Kortright, J. B.; Gagliardi, L. Bordiga, S.; Reimer, J. A.; Long, J.R. Nature2015, 519, 303-308.
Jump up ^Lee, W.R.; Jo, H.; Yang, L.-M.; Lee, H.; Ryu, D. W.; Lim, K. S.; Song, J. H.; Min, D. Y.; Han, S. S.; Seo, J. G.; Park, Y. K.; Moon, D.; Hong, C. S. Chem. Sci.2015, 6, 3697-3705.
Jump up ^Aprea, P.; Caputo, D.; Gargiulo, N.; Iucolano, F.; Pepe, F. J. Chem. Eng. Data2010, 55, 3655.
INDUSTRIAL FUEL & ENERGY REGENERATORS
Imagine an entire huge fossil-fuelled power plant or industry facility running on little more than its own exhaust gases — hardly anything else than the greenhouse gas (GHG) waste that itself produces while in operation.
On and on, requiring minuscule additional* external fuel supplies just for covering up for thermal (heat energy) and other power losses.
Producing clean, cheap fuel itself in a perpetual cycle by capturing the Carbon C intrinsic in smokestack Carbondioxide CO2 and recombining it with Hydrogen H extracted through artificial photosynthesis from sea or lake water, back into new Hydrocarbon CxHx, alcohols xHxOH etc, with the help of smart, taylored catalytic processes.
(*)Even procuring those additional fuel supplies itself by capturing the Carbon C intrinsic in atmospheric & aquatic* Carbondioxide CO2 and recombining it the same way as described. Or, remitting to fuel distribution from fuel production facilities specialized in this atmospheric - aquatic energy retraction and infrastructural distribution.
This is the conceptual principle blueprint for the whole concept:
Simple but beautiful, as with all sustainable notions.
Here is a conceptual model of a catalytic device for recombining CO, reduced from captured CO2, into CxHx or CxHxOH output products:
And this, put simply, is the magic that goes on inside of it, that visualizes the wonders of catalytically aided chemical, biological, biochemical and other [combined] processes:
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VEHICLE SHUNT REFUELLING CATALYTIC CONVERTERS
Imagine refuelling your car, your yacht, your plane ten times less often than today. Imagine driving ten times longer the distance before needing to refuel. And at less than one tenth the cost you pay today for your fuel !!
Then widen your horizon, glance upward at a higher level, at even bigger perspectives — imagine this for every truck, lorry, bus, motorcycle, scooter, sea vessel, cargo ship, jet airliner, bulldozer, excavator or other diesel-fuelled piece of machinery on the planet.
Cheap, totally climate neutral, eternally abundant energy for all of us for as long as we want!
How could this vision come true ??
By reconverting a major part of your engine exhaust fumes into new fuel in a catalytic converter attached to your exhaust pipe, shunting the reconverted fuel back into your engine in a closed loop.
Would that work ??
Definitely — just as fine as today's NO2+CO+HC* transforming (but not reshunting) catalytic converters, in many countries since decades mandatory underneath every car and truck.
Feasible products could work in either end of today's mandatory converters, that eliminate concentrated car exhaust outlet NO2+CO+HC* at high temperatures and elevated gas pressure: 》
》 (A) inserting a Carbon resorbing catalytic converter step before today's converter step, i.e. between the engine and the NO2+CO+HC* converter
》 (B) inserting a Carbon resorbing catalytic converter step behind today's converter step, i.e. between the NO2+CO+HC* converter and the rear exhaust pipe
(*) NO2 = nitrogendioxide, CO = carbonmonoxide, HC = [HxCx] hydrocarbons (residuals from fuel)
Today's converters absorb nitrogen compounds like NOx produced by the engine combustion of the fuel + air mixture (Nitrogen N is abundant to 81% of the atmosphere).
They also absorb residual hydrocarbons CxHx (or HxCx if you prefer) that due to incomplete engine combustion remains in the exhaust fumes.
Last, the carbonmonoxide CO portion which catalytically converts into carbondioxide CO2.
Advantages & disadvantages: 》
》 (A) + + + before... Implies that we're able to eliminate the entering two H2O oxidation and CO2 -> CO photocatalytic reduction steps.
》 (A) before... The absorption process gets substantially harder in that NOx and CxHx impurities are interfering with the CO -> CxHx synthetic processes.
》 (B) + + + behind... The absorption process gets substantially easier in that NOx and CxHx impurities interfering with the CO -> CxHx synthetic processes are non-existant.
》 (B) behind... Implies that the preceding converter step through its CO -> CO2 synthesis has rendered us a requirement for two additional, entering H2O oxidation and CO2 -> CO reduction steps.
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CatELab-APS/e3 RESEARCH, SIMULATION & PRISM SOFTWARE
Our CatELab-APS/e3 software will enable the elaboration of catalysts suitable for various conditions and applications: 》
》 diluted atmospheric and seawater-dissolved GHGs at various temperatures and at normal atmospheric - aquatic pressures
》 concentrated car exhaust outlet GHGs at high temperatures and elevated gas pressure (compare with today's NO2 + CO + HC* transforming catalytic converters, in many countries mandatory underneath every modern car)
》 concentrated industry and power plant smokestack GHGs at reduced temperatures and moderate pressure
》 any today not anticipated application dealing with any range of concentration, temperature and pressure
》 Also of course, adapted to the type of fuel the energy producer desires to output at any given facility or mobile catalytic converter setup
(*) NO2 = nitrogendioxide, CO = carbonmonoxide, HC = [HxCx] hydrocarbons (residuals from fuel)
This implies that we have designed our software to work with any given combined level of those four or five production conditions, be they high or low, dense or diluted, hot or cold, respectively.
At the end of the day we aim to offer a software that can be managed in a simple way by non-scientist personnel, simply operated through intuitive web browser interface parameter calibrations of the anticipated transformation process input conditions as well as the desired outputs by turn. more coming soon!
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FleXray Anylyzer UTILITY SOFTWARE
Our FleXray Anylyzer
- Flexible X-ray Analyzer - utility software is an omnifarious & omnipotent utility software for analyzing anything, any way.
This utlility is integrated into the Important Facts & Docs section. Its functionality can be applied to any data of any type, coming from any source. This utility is developed by us as a stand-alone software package easily integrable onto any set of information source - documents, calculation sheets, videos, audios, photos, graphics, animations, databases, webplaces, maps ... whatever — No "Big-Data"... c) : Works with any document format ... any video format ... any image format ... any raw data streaming in from anywhere, auto-structured by the reader function into crystal clear data and analyzed meeting your every need of clarity. So check it out and experience a new world of perceiving and dealing with... anything really... right at your fingertips, coming alive at your excited feet! This will turn you into a big-time juggler in total control - intuitively and with no effort. (the analyze functionality portion of this utility is available to FleXray subscribers and to CatELab licensees. Contact us for a demo and for additional information.) Stay tuned 4 addons! more coming soon!
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AN UNPRECEDENTED ENERGY INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY
"An Infinite Energy Supply." — U.S. Department of Energy
A Fallow Sub- & Superaqueous Ocean of Energy Biding a Miracle Coming True
Made feasible by AES — the World's future Energy system disruptor & paradigm shifter #1 — the World's next Energy mega trend setter ...
Our company’s breakthrough technology will finally make it possible to commercialize this INFINITE SUPPLY of energy that’s cheaper, cleaner and more abundant than every other fuel.
In the following I'll make evident to you how you can make an unprecedented and inconceivable gain on one position in the energy sector. The signals of success that none other can match will be obvious for you and for everyone else to see.
But you have to get started early. This opportunity is so large — and so potentially lucrative — that it could pass you by in a matter of weeks. I’m talking about making pyramidal gains, but you can get started with a investment - tiny or substantial - to your preference.
To understand exactly how big this opportunity is, we have to look back in history ... and you will see that every time a technology disrupts the energy industry ... BILLIONS are made by those who get in early.
For example, have you ever seen one of these?
This big, ugly mass of metal that dominates the landscape of oil-rich states like Texas and California goes by many names.
Some call it a nodding donkey.
Others say it’s a rocking horse.
While some call it a grasshopper pump.
No matter what you call it, it’s a pumpjack, and it has one purpose: to excavate oil from the ground.
When Walter Trout first invented the pumpjack in 1925, it was a massive disruptor to the oil industry.
In short, it allows operators to extract oil that would otherwise remain untapped and extends the life of a well by several years.
As a result, this pump made the Trout family extremely wealthy.
In fact, the company Trout headed for decades, Lufkin Industries, the leading pumpjack-maker in the world, was recently acquired by GE Oil & Gas . . . for $3.3 billion.
But this pales in comparison to the fortune made by the maker of this unusual-looking device...
It’s a rotary bit.
It weighs 78 pounds, costs $3,500 and turns up to 100 times a minute.
This bit was also a disruptor in the energy business ... it forever changed the oil industry.
It essentially cracked the code to breaking through underground granite, allowing machinery to bore thousands of feet into a well.
The man behind this revolutionary piece of machinery: Howard Hughes Sr.
His company, Hughes Tool Co., which was left to his son Howard Hughes Jr. upon his untimely passing in 1924, held the patent on the tricone rotary bit for 17 years.
During this time, Hughes’s market share was nearly 100%.
This bit found almost all of the oil discovered during this era.
And Howard Jr. became the richest man in the world.
At the time of his death, Hughes’ net worth, in today’s dollars, was estimated to be $43 billion.
A remarkable sum of money.
Yet it’s puny compared to that of John D. Rockefeller.
America’s first billionaire.
In today’s dollars, Rockefeller’s wealth would be $318 billion.
Of course, just like Trout and Hughes, he too made his fortune when he disrupted the oil industry.
He did it through this...
It’s an oil pipeline.
A pipeline is the most efficient way to transport oil.
Rockefeller knew that by owning the pipelines, he could control how much was paid for the oil that went into his refineries.
By 1882, Rockefeller’s company, Standard Oil, controlled some 90% of America's refineries and had over 4,000 miles of pipelines.
Standard Oil became the world’s first great industrial monopoly.
And John D. Rockefeller became the richest man in the history of the world.
The federal government broke up Standard Oil, but its spinoffs are still some of the biggest and most powerful oil companies in the world.
ConocoPhillips, BP, Chevron and ExxonMobil all trace their roots back to John D. Rockefeller.
These three disruptive innovations...
The rotary bit
...made billions for the Trout, Hughes and Rockefeller families ... and it made fortunes for shareholders with the vision to see that energy was the future.
And now, once again, energy in the world is making an abrupt shift ... to a cleaner, cheaper and more abundant fuel ... a shift that will revolutionize the entire energy industry.
And a company with technology that can efficiently tap this massive reserve above our heads and in the oceans and turn it into fuels and electricity is at the forefront of this energy resurgence.
I am confident people who invest in our company will become very rich — and will have the opportunity to turn their investments into an absolute fortune.
Today, as I’ll show you in a moment, our company’s breakthrough technology will finally make it possible to access this INFINITE SUPPLY of energy that’s cheaper, cleaner and more abundant than every fossil fuel. And not just cleaner, but in fact so clean it's cleaning all atmospheric and oceanic fossil waste surplus aggregation up!
An Energy that will take the world by storm.
For example, China predicts this fuel production system’s usage to grow exponentially.
And The New York Times reports that “France is making a new push to develop [this] energy. The goal is to reduce carbon emissions ... while ensuring the nation’s energy independence.”
Even less developed or coastal based and therefore vulnerable countries like Costa Rica are jumping in.
Right now, we are in the early stages of a global transformation that simply wasn’t possible just a few years ago.
And it’s all thanks to our powerful, unique software conducted technology.
Some of the biggest energy-consuming countries in the world, including China, France, India, Japan and Russia have begun to show interest in deals.
And I believe, if everything falls into place, once gone public our stock will hand early investors the opportunity to manifold their money in the months ahead. That’s millions of dollars for those who want in substantially, thousands for those in tiny.
Before I tell you more about how to position yourself before the mainstream catches wind, it’s important to understand more about this energy and why it is the energy of the future. This powerful source of energy — that’s waiting to be tapped from above our heads and beneath the oceans' surface — is totally clean in its negative net carbon imprint (which implies purging air and water), cheap in its low production cost and current infrastructure utilization and more abundant than fossil fuel and every other energy commodity on Earth.
At the time scientists began conceiving of the possibilies of recycling carbondioxide and other atmospheric or sea-soluble greenhouse gases, their work was met with much skepticism.
You see, their findings needed one to believe that the man induced climate warming phenomenon exists. But that existence was not widely accepted for another 30 years.
Yet it’s still the only non-utilized renewable energy on the planet.
I’m talking about energy that is generated from fossil energy depots and that are combusted on the surface of the Earth, combining with atmospheric Oxygen in the process, rendering today 43 billion tons of new Carbon dioxide alone... not mentioning the leakage into the atmosphere of other greenhouse gases like recapturable and plainly reusable Methane.
This energy is popularly called fossil energy. But that's just its origins behind the naming conventions. To us, a neutral and appropriate naming would be renewable hydrocarbon energy, or the likes.
A Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) study reveals there is enough energy in the atmosphere and beneath the oceans' surface to meet the world’s power needs FOR AS LONG AS WE WANT.
And the U.S. Energy Information Administration reports that “the amount of energy in the atmosphere and in the oceans contains a manifold more energy than all the remaining FOSSIL coal, oil and natural gas resources in the world.”
Until recently, this (non-renewable) hydrocarbon energy could only be brought to the surface from pumping it up off the ground.
But now, thanks in no small part to our innovative company — and our remarkable “energy-mining” technology — this INFINITE SUPPLY of energy waiting to be harvested ... can start being tapped to power millions of homes, office buildings, airports ... and to start cleaning up the atmosphere, our oceans and lakes from a year-by-year increasingly detrimental and, future-wise predicted-to-be, fatal greenhouse gas surplus.
I’ll tell you more about our company and how to profit from our breakthrough innovation in a moment, but before I get to that, I want to show you why those who act early could make an absolute fortune. But with panicsoon to set in around our globe - redirecting all available assets to temporary bailouts like moving beaches up land and building enormous stretches of "protective" walls, at the expense of constructive R&D and development of REAL climate issue solving technologies - this is likely a Rapidly Closing Window of Opportunity. Therefore, we must all act with no further delay to save our future.
Again, disruptive innovations in the energy sector are responsible for some of the greatest fortunes in history.
The Trout family — inventors of the pumpjack — sold their company for $3.3 billion.
Howard Hughes Jr. — who patented the rotary bit — left a $43 billion fortune.
And John D. Rockefeller’s fortune — made from the oil pipeline — is worth an estimated $318 billion.
As remarkable as these fortunes are, they pale in comparison to what you could make on the shift to the largest energy source the world has ever known.
And while there will be a number of ways to profit in the coming years, there will NOT be another opportunity before you like the one that is here today.
You see, the dawn of a new energy renaissance is upon us.
And our remarkable — yet overlooked — technology and dawning company is at the forefront.
If you were to make only one energy investment in the next decade, this should be the one.
Because this is the incomparably most intelligent and concurrently RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEM conceivable.
As I mentioned, there is enough energy to meet the world’s power demands literally for eternity, simultaneously enabling us to balance the atmospheric and aqueous rates of greenhouse gases in the air and in the water, reestablishing them at pre-industrial levels at our will.
The absolutely best way to capitalize on this phenomenal opportunity is to invest in the one company that is developing the technology that will make this abundant energy accessible to the world ... and the rush to tap this INFINITE FUEL SUPPLY soon will be on.
INFINITE BECAUSE as we UTILIZE the Carbon, hydrocarbons, and alcohol in combustion engines for transportation, power plants flue gas for electricity and heat generation, and industry flue gas for manufacturing, WE CONCURRENTLY PRODUCE waste (greenhouse) gases - namely the FEEDSTOCK, the raw material - which we subsequently recapture and transform into NEW FUELS in a perpetual cycle: combust - recycle - combust - recycle, and so forth.
I am sure you already realize that CARBON IS ENERGY, irrespective of free as in Coal, or intrinsic in any compound, like CO2 Carbon dioxide, CH4 Methane and CxHx other liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons, and CxHxOH alcohols, plastics and other compounds.
As you easily also realize, any Carbon reuse - retract cycle can go on forever, for eternity, perpetually, for as long as we like, for as long as we decide. And no Carbon - no ENERGY - is lost in the making. It all stays on the planet, in exactly the forms that we, i.e. THE MARKETS, decide we need it for from time to time. Just like today, only this time from clean origins - no sulphur dioxide (turning into sulphuric acid/ vitriol in contact with water) acicifying lakes, forests and farming lands, no heavy metal impurities to go around in our food chain supplies.
Google is spending millions in heat-mining technology to fuel its campuses. This energy system would be perfect for them.
Warren Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway has invested millions in thermal heating, no doubt in my mind that with time he will turn to this instead.
Many of the world’s biggest companies are doing everything they can to avoid paying the electric company every month ... as they shift to a cleaner, cheaper and much more efficient source of energy...
Apple ... Amazon ... Tesla ... Walgreens ... Ikea ... Chevron...
The list goes on and on.
And it’s not just a phenomenon taking place in the United States.
The biggest energy consumers in the world are shifting away from fossil fuels and into renewable energy.
China ... Russia ... Mexico ... Italy ... Japan ... France...
With our clean, cheap energy concept they could all revert to Hydrocarbons and Alcohols WITH A CLEAN CONSCIENCE and HEAPS OF MONEY LEFT in their wallets.
But it comes down to this...
The richest and smartest investors are kicking in their stalls and gnawing at their gates to be among the first into this CHEAP, CLEAN and INFINITE supply of energy.
And our company is the one best-positioned to help them do it.
For investors, the trend is just starting.
I’m sure you remember what happened a decade ago, when a similar trend was underway ... when solar stocks were all the rage.
When companies like First Solar skyrocketed from $26 to over $300...
And early investors had the opportunity to make 1,195% gains.
When SunPower took off...
Going from $24 to $133 ... handing early investors 454% gains.
And when Vestas Wind Systems surged...
From $62 to $692 ... making investors with the vision to see the solar industry was on the cusp of a major surge a staggering 1,016% return.
Well, I am absolutely certain that this massive energy revolution lead by us will make early investors even greater wealth.
A revolution that could DWARF the solar gains of 1,195% ... 454% ... and 1,106%.
And at the forefront of it all is an innovative company with the technology necessary to harness this greenhouse gas waste and turn it into clean fuels AT A LOW COST ... a company that I believe will give early investors the opportunity to make more than they dreamed off in return for their money in the months ahead ... and you can get started with any amount you like.
I am confident investors with the foresight to invest in our company — before anyone else realizes how massive this opportunity is — will be rewarded greatly.
AND HERE'S WHY...
We are the only company in the world constructing a unique, groundbreaking software for Simulation Based Engineering (SBES) based energy system R&D.
Pre-eminent SBES software sufficiently apt for elaborating catalysts and catalytic processes operating at various conditions like temperature, pressure, additives, bio/chemo/other components — integrating these elaboration results with an E-Lab, i.e. a virtual computer-based laboratory for evaluating and assessing the results in terms of i.a. production costs, volumes per time unit, and fuel types feasible to produce from each eligible catalyst or catalytic process studied.
The ability to efficiently tap the earth’s greenhouse gases and reconvert them into new is going to spur a newfound energy renaissance the likes of which hasn’t been seen in America in over 100 years ... when some of the greatest fortunes the world has ever seen were made...
When the Trout family made their $3.3 billion fortune.
When Howard Hughes Jr. made his $43 billion fortune.
And when John D. Rockefeller made his $318 billion fortune.
Only combustion waste "mining" has the potential to be MUCH BIGGER than Big Oil.
Because unlike oil, which is only found in small pockets around the world ... waste gas energy can be found directly in the atmosphere, in smokestacks of power plants and industries, in sea and lake water, and in exhaust pipes of every diesel, gasoline (petrol) or kerosene propelled vehicle, vessel or aircraft.
Again, coal, hydrocarbon and alcohol energy is not new — some of it has been a known and proven source of reliable energy for as long as our world has been industrialized.
The only problem is, energy mining technology has only been able to harness its products from fossil sources.
The company I represent has taken energy mining to a whole new level ... its energy mining technology can extract energy from anywhere on earth — from smokestacks, vehicle exhausts, atmosphere, lakes, and oceans.
In the coming decade, I believe waste gas recycling energy — thanks to our company’s technology — will be the most widely used form of energy. All around the world.
And this mega trend is beginning right now.
Our R&D has led us to position our company where we are today, a company that stands to hand early investors the biggest profits.
CO2 & other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, lakes & oceans imply Big-Time Money just waiting for Us to be harvested!!
Formed in 2013, our company’s CEO is an IT and industry veteran, and he’s using his contacts to lock in some stellar contracts...
Investing in this corporate pioneer today could position you perfectly to enjoy a ride on the greatest energy renaissance the world has ever seen.
In the last few months, our company's energy system concept has gained global recognition as corporations and institutions in i.a. Malaysia, the Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, French Polynesia and the Republic of Fiji have all shown interest in learning all they can about our computer simulation based Energy Mining technology.
Fact is, it’s impossible to project just how massive the gains for early investors here could be, because we’ve never seen a situation quite like this before.
A situation where one company is so integrated in nearly every phase of the waste gas "mining" process that it is likely to grow proportionately with the niche itself.
And, while nothing in the market is guaranteed, even a fraction of the success we predict would be enough to be life-changing.
Perhaps now you can see why I am convinced our company will soon dominate not just the fossil replacing fuels industry, but the entire energy sector itself. And why I believe our turnover and future stock will take off.
Early investors in solar stocks saw gains of 1,195% ... 454% ... and 1,106%.
And I have no doubt this will be an even more lucrative opportunity for investors who take action early.
Investing in our company is simple.
You may opt between closing a Personal Investment Deal, purchasing Equities, and/or joining our Crowd Funding Campaign.
You may also wish to Sponsor us, Donate, and/or Place Ads at our Corporate Website.
A personal investment deal —>
Through a personal meeting face-to-face, over Skype or other video link, over the phone, or via email.
Purchase Equities —>
You need to sign up, whereby you can fill in any personal details to your liking — all we really need at this point is your login-id (email-adress) for verifying you on your purchase details.
Equity purchases are most easily made via PayPal — all you need to supply us with, along with the payment, is your login-id.
When later you wish to withdraw (some or all of) your equity balance, you'll notify us supplying your login-id along with payment details — however if you made the purchase via PayPal, we already have your PayPal account id for forwarding our repayment (you are however of course free to specify another account or transaction method for this).
All equities are payable in Euros (EUR), US Dollars (USD), or Swedish Kronor (SEK).
Our Equity Model is found under top meny "mission/models".
As later we go public, our shares will be traded over the Stock Exchange ("SE"), whereby we will offer you to keep your equities (traded as described), or to convert them into shares traded over the SE.
Take care now => & Take action a$ap ...
Sincerely, Mr Per lindell
CEO & founder of AES - Arphosis Energy Systems International, Inc.
: : : Funding Everybody's Future : : :
Our campaign is important in evidencing the necessity of bringing about a paradigm shift — omitting politicians wherever feasible — in order to come up with functional solutions.
Our project is unique in that it aims at disclosing our true options for the future, breaking the backbone of every sacred but fake, screwy, or pathetically ineffective initiative launched and cherished by powers striving for high yields but not often for the benefit of coming generations.
...................................................................................................................................... our objectives »
» Fight Ignorance, Indifference, and Denialism by Enlightening World Citizens. » Build a World Community of Enlightened and Demanding, Caring Common People. » Evoke New Markets from Demands for Truly Sustainable, Clean Energy Products. » Turn the World Right by Atmospheric & Oceanic Cleanup thru Greenhouse Gas Recycling. » Work for and Support Deplastification of Our Oceans & Lakes. » Work for and Support Desalination of Sea Water for Drinking & Irrigation. » Provide Other Resource Resilient, Economy—Ecology—Energy Sustainable Solutions.
It is our firm belief that all this be achieved only through free market incentives, excluding corrupt politicians and authorities wherever possible.
The prime issue to address in this endeavor is a growing public ignorance caused by indifference, disinformation, and smokescreens — laid out by the corporate and official propaganda machinery, lobbying groups etc, in order to keep people unaware and happy... if not with the world as it is, then at least "Hey, what the heck..." — happy anyway with their own lives as they are.
To bring about an enduring sustainable change, the first step necessary therefore implies enough many of us stepping out of our Comfort Zone !!
Our vision on the future global fuel- combinatory glocal energy- solutions
Our vision on the future climate & energy applied in our solutions !
Gains of artificial photosynthesis
regulation of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide 2, methane CH4 and dinitro oxide N2O, a k a laughing-gas -- water vapour H2O, however, is the most efficient and most abundant greenhouse gas, whose concentraion is affected mainly by the temperature (colder oceans emit less water vapor, and vice versa)
recycling and reuse of energy in the form of electricity, hydrogen, carbon, hydrocarbons and alcohols (see the above figure) in accordance with market demands
a drastic reduction in oil & gas exploration and coal mining from fossil sources -- the remaining oil is needed within other important areas in the foreseeable future
the fossil energy we already have extracted and won from fossil deposits becomes our friend forever, instead of our enemy and assassin
the deforestation of tropical forests can cease because the cultivation of energy crops (such as corn, soy and oil palm) for the production of fuel ethanol no longer will be profitable
as the oil, gas & coal depot volumes decrease (oil has already peaked), so do the extraction costs increase for the oil companies, whereby recycling (hydration & re-use) of greenhouse gases through the regeneration of hydrocarbons and other fuels become more profitable
it will be possible to fully utilize the existing infrastructure constituting pipelines, ports, and refineries, gradually less and less used due to the fossil fuel extraction chain's growing unprofitability, which could minimize new investment costs
we may go about constructing prototypes and deploying pilot plants promptly, because of all the research results already available as blueprints for keen entrepreneurs to start abiding -- for instance, in September 2012 news of Panasonic's first prototype plant reached the world
The Antarctic shelf-ices are melting already. These constitute the only barrier
that holds back the Antarctic several
kilometres thick land-based ices from sliding out into the ocean. Archaeologists have presented evidence that our planet
earlier has undergone global warming to the level where the surrounding Antarctic shelf-ices melted away and no longer
could hold back, entailing an abrupt sea-level rise of 50-60 meters. This is also expected to happen in the future.
Mountainous ice bodies plunging into the ocean will produce tsunamis of immense height and width (both directionally
All the world's glaciers (e.g. Greenland, Patagonia, Alaska, the Alps, New Zealand Southern Alps) have already melted
off to some degree, but of the remaining ice bodies, the water equivalent of the Greenland inland ice alone corresponds
to a sea-level rise of 6-8 metres. By comparison, some scientists specify that the sea level rise since 1820 is some 20
cm, while researchers departing from altitude marks dated to the beginning of the 18th century set the raise to 70 cm;
thereupon argue the learned. Arctic melting will not affect the sea level, because the ice completely rests in the ocean,
where it displaces seawater equivalent to its own weight (according to Archimedes' principle)
The ice meltoff in the northern hemisphere slows the Gulf stream already (estimates say 30%) and will weaken it further
in days to come. All global ocean currents will change which affects not only the marine wildlife, but new weather
phenomena will also occur - hurricanes with higher wind speeds and new trajectories are forecasted to devastate and
inundate areas farther north - among others New York, Tokyo and Shanghai may be frequently susceptible. Also the
precipitation's distribution will be impacted even more than now, entailing even more inland inundations and droughts.
A large part of the additional carbon dioxide is absorbed by oceans and lakes, causing an increased acidification and
fishkills - the water that animals and plants live in more and more resemble soda water! If even the blue-green algae
get adversely affected, life on Earth is jeopardized because the algae account for 80% of the oxygen production onto the atmosphere
A large part of the city, provincial, and rural populations in and around more than two thirds of the world's major cities
will have to escape from drowning like rats. Complete anarchy will break out, and the notion of individual ownership will
no longer have any meaning. Here only the law of the jungle applies - eat or be eaten - and only the strongest and most
unscrupulous, armed or insane individuals will survive.
Massvält och brist på eller avsaknad av i princip allt blir troligen följden
All infrastructure somehow connected to the flooded areas will become unusable. This way, inter-continental transports as well as intra-continental and
domestic transport networks will break down altogether. Mass starvation and the lack or absence of basically everything will probably be the consequence.
The financial and monetary systems are crashing down at an early stage. Insurance companies won't insure property, banks
won't lend to housing that could soon become worthless or, by extension, repossessed or demolished by outsiders. Because
money finally will be useless, social security networks are crashing down too, so anyone who cannot engage in barter can neither get hold of food, shelter, warmth, nor medicine for his or her family
Politicians neither in the EU nor any other country, agency or organization will be able to do anything because too few
people will want to do anything - those who want to do something will be thwarted by those who earn their living
(and some of them fill their pockets) on the reigning system. The financial system ought to stand on tiptoe as soon as it
gets the scent of new and previously unimagined business opportunities. However, unfortunately they have probably wasted
their powder and shots in connection with the financial crisis of 2008 (and counting), the EMU crisis escalating into an EU crisis,
low solidity, and pyramid game like, hollow, fictitious bank values, as well as national budget deficits and loan dependencies
of the Chinese (who start a new coal fired power plant per week... and want to change no-a-ting)
Source: Coastal Analysis Data Set utilizing GRUMP beta population and land area grids (CIESIN, 2005),
Low Elevation Coastal Zone created from SRTM elevation grid (CIESIN, 2006)
LECZ = Low Elevation Coastal Zone
LECZ: land area that is contiguous with the coast and 10 meters or less in elevation.
Region Urban population LECZ Population Urban population in LECZ % of LECZ urban % of urban in LECZ
(millions) (millions) (millions) to total urban
Africa Total 282 56 32 11.5% 58.2%
Northern Africa 88 30 16 17.6% 50.6%
Sub-Saharan Africa 194 25 17 8.7% 67.6%
Asia total 1431 450 235 16.4% 52.3%
Eastern Asia 709 160 109 15.4% 68.4%
Southern Asia 415 141 56 13.5% 39.7%
South-Eastern Asia 169 137 61 36.2% 44.6%
Western Asia 103 11 8 8.3% 73.9%
CIS Asia 35 .1 .1 0.3% 61.0%
LAC 320 34 25 7.7% 73.4%
Oceania 2 .9 .4 21.9% 51.9%
Developing Total 2035 540 293 14.4% 54.2%
Europe (inc. CIS Europe) 501 50 40 7.9% 79.1%
N.America 256 24 21 8.4% 88.7%
Japan 102 29 28 27.0% 93.8%
Australia & New Zealand 18 3 2 13.5% 85.1%
Developed Total 877 107 91 10.4% 85.5%
World total 2911 647 384 13.2% 59.4%
Vulnerability to inundation
(basic info - join in & team up for full edition)
The Earth's major coastal cities
number of million inhabitants (2010) in the area
London (GBR) - 13
Köln (GER) - 3
Marseille (FRA) - 2
Barcelona (ESP) - 3
S:t Petersburg (RUS) - 5
Stockholm (SWE) - 2
Köpenhamn (DAN) - 2
Oslo (NOR) - 1
Helsinki (FIN) - 1
Aten (GRE) - 3
Istanbul (TUR) - 10
Riga (LAT) - 1
Vilnius (LIT) - 1
Tallinn - 1
New York - 20
Los Angeles - 15
Philadelphia - 5
Washington, DC - 4
San Francisco - 4
Port au Prince (HAI)
San Juan (DOM)
Panama City (PAN)
Sao Paolo (BRA) - 19
Rio de Janeiro (BRA) - 11
Salvador (BRA) - 3
Porte Alegre (BRA)
Buenos Aires (ARG) - 13
Lima (PER) - 8
Shanghai - 17
Hong Kong - 6
Tokyo - 33
Osaka-Kobe - 17
Mumbay - 19
Delhi - 19
Chennai - 7
Calcutta - 15
Karachi (PAK) - 12
Bangkok (THA) - 7
Kuala Lumpur (MAL)
Dhaka (BAN) - 11
Colombo (SRL) - 2
Seoul (KOR) - 21
Ho Chi Minh City (VIE) - 7
Hanoi (VIE) - 4
Jakarta (INA) - 19
Manila (FIL) - 16
Sydney - 4
Melbourne - 3
Alexandria (EGY) - 4
Bur Said (EGY)
AlMahallah alKubr (EGY)
Alger (ALG) - 5
Casablanca (MAR) - 4
Freetown (SIL) - 2
Lagos (NIG) - 14
Luanda (KON) - 2
Port Elizabeth (RSA)
Maputo (MOZ) - 3